Forex market is a world of foreign currency and exchange where one currency is exchanged for another currency for multiple reasons, including trading, tourism, or commerce. The Forex market, which is also called foreign exchange or FX market, is one marketplace for the whole world to exchange domestic currency for foreign currencies.
Because of the international commerce, trade, and financial relation amongst nations globally, the forex market has become the largest and most liquid asset market across the globe. In the form of exchange rate pairs, currencies are traded in the forex market against each other. For example, to trade Indian Rupees against the US Dollar, the exchange rate pairing is done between INR/USD.
Forex market is a mix of derivatives markets and spot or cash markets where services like futures, forwards, currency swaps, and options are offered. The forex market participants take the help of forex to hedge against foreign currency and interest rate risk, think on geopolitical events, diversify portfolios, and several other purposes. So, let’s understand in detail what the forex market means and how it works.
What Does Foreign Market Mean?
The forex market is a place to trade currencies. The Value Of Paper Money or currencies is all-important for nations because it allows people to purchase goods and services locally and across borders. And, to conduct international trade business, foreign currencies need to be exchanged. For example, if you live in India but want to buy gold bars from Dubai, you or the brand from where you’re making the purchases has to pay for the gold bars in AED (Arab-e-Dinar), which is Dubai’s domestic currency.
The above example denotes that Indian importers would have to exchange the equivalent value of Indian Rupees, i.e., INR, into AED to make the overseas payment. The logic is applicable when you travel abroad for leisure, work, or studies.
Suppose you’re an American traveling to Egypt for holidays. In that case, you cannot tour the city by paying for expenses in American Dollars or USD because it is not the locally accepted currency in Egypt. You will be required to exchange your USD currency for the local Egyptian Pound at the exchange rate offered at the forex market.
One peculiar feature of the forex market is the absence of a central marketplace for foreign exchange. Here, the exchange of currencies takes place electronically over-the-counter (OTC), which means all transactions take place through computer networks amongst traders all over the globe as opposed to one centralized exchange, like the stock markets.
The Forex market functions non-stop for 24 hours and five and a half days a week. Trading of currencies occurs worldwide in New York, Frankfurt, Hong Kong, London, Zurich, Tokyo, Paris, Singapore, and Sydney, covering almost every time zone.
It implies that when the trading shuts down in Paris, the forex market in New York starts functioning. This shows that the forex market is highly active throughout the day, with exchange rates constantly fluctuating.
How Does the Forex Market Operate?
To trade foreign exchange, there exist three ways, which are as follows:
The spot marketplace for forex trading is where currencies are purchased and sold based on their trading prices. The demand and supply determine this trading price. It is worked out based on various factors, like economic performance, point of view towards the ongoing political situation (both on national and international fronts), current interest rates, and the approach of one currency’s future performance against another.
When finalized in the spot market, a deal is called a “spot deal,” a two-way transaction. Under this deal, one party gives a mutually agreed-upon currency amount to the other party. In return, it receives a specified amount of foreign currency at a prior agreed-upon exchange rate value. The final settlement is made in cash once a position is closed. Transaction in the spot market ideally takes two days to settle.
Forwards & Futures Market:
Forward contracts are a private agreement or contract formed by two parties willing to buy a currency in the forex market at a future date and a pre-decided price.
A standardized agreement formed between two parties is called a futures contract, which is made to take ownership or possession of a currency at a future date and a pre-agreed price.
In this market, trading of actual currencies does not take place. Instead, the participants of this market deal in contracts that serve as a legal document, authorizing claims to a particular currency type, a predetermined price rate per unit of currency, and a future date for final settlement.
Contracts are purchased and sold over-the-counter between two interested parties in the forwards market, who have the power to fix the terms of the agreement between themselves. While, in the futures market, futures contracts are sold and purchased on a public commodities market based on the settlement date and standard size, such as the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.
A futures contract has specific details mentioned in it, including a number of units up for trading, minimum price increments, and settlement & delivery dates, not subjected to customization.
Both futures and forward contracts are binding and generally honored for cash at the forex market at the time of its expiry. However, such contracts can be purchased and sold before they are due to expire. The futures and forwards market involving currency can safeguard against risk when traded currencies.
The Bottom Line
If you are a trader with limited funds, swing trading or day trading in small amounts will be easier for you. Or, if you possess more significant funds and seek a long-term investment in the forex market, a carry trade or long-term fundamental-based trading will be a good option for you.
New forex traders who dream of making profits must pay attention to understand macroeconomic fundamentals that drive currency values and experience with technical analysis.
Kacee Christian is a freelance content writer and enthusiastic blogger. She is the co-founder of Dream And Travel. She contributes to many authority blogs such as Tour And Travel, Online News Buzz, Mashum Mollah, Blog Stellar, Real Wealth Business.